Police's PIT maneuver has killed at the very least 30 folks since 2016 – Washington Submit
Just before midnight on March 28, 2017, a silver Dodge caravan sped past Highway Patrol Trooper Dustin A. Motsinger as he parked on a stretch of highway in rural North Carolina. Motsinger raced after the speeding van. The driver stopped, but when the soldier got out of his cruiser, the van drove off. Motsinger pursued him.
That night, 15-year-old Osiel Carbajal was behind the wheel in the van. His passengers: his 16 year old sister, her 15 year old boyfriend and a 15 year old boyfriend. The teenagers had taken the van in nearby Morven without Carbajal's mother's permission.
"Possibly 55, they're everywhere," Motsinger told his manager on the radio and used the code for a drunk driver.
"If you can PIT him, go ahead," said the supervisor.
When the teenagers crossed the Anson County border at 100 mph, Motsinger caught up with them. Then he pushed his Dodge Charger against the right rear panel of the caravan and sent it off the road.
The van turned and began to spin. He landed nearly 500 feet away. The force sheared the wheels from the left side of the vehicle. The impact threw three of the teenagers out of the caravan. Two of them died. One broke his back. The driver suffered minor injuries.
A minivan crashed after a high-speed chase with a North Carolina Highway Patrol soldier in 2017. The soldier performed a PIT maneuver, causing the driver to lose control of the vehicle, which overturned and landed 500 feet away, killing two passengers. (North Carolina State Highway Patrol Collision Reconstruction Unit)
The soldier's maneuver was no accident – it was a PIT or precision immobilization technique, a tactical driving maneuver that he had been trained to do.
In a successful PIT, the chase officer with his cruiser pushes the stern of the fleeing vehicle to the side, turns it into a turn and ends the chase. But the tactic can have fatal consequences.
So far this year, nine people have been killed in PIT maneuvers nationwide, including a 16-year-old who drove a stolen car in Longmont, Colorado, and a driver and passenger who were followed by police for speeding in Creek County, Okla. As recently as this month, a 29-year-old suspected drunk driver who fled a traffic obstruction in Coweta County, Georgia, died after a PIT maneuver.
Since 2016, at least 30 people have died and hundreds have been injured – including some officers – when police used the maneuver to end the chase, according to a Washington Post investigation.
Of those deaths, 18 came after officials tried to stop vehicles for minor traffic violations such as speeding. In eight cases the police followed a stolen car and in two cases the drivers were suspected of serious crimes. Two other drivers had been reported as suicides.
Ten of the 30 killed were passengers in the fleeing vehicles; four were spectators or victims of a crime.
Half of the people killed in the accidents were colored people: nine blacks, four Hispanics, and one Indian. Fourteen of those killed were white and the race of two could not be determined.
The total number of people killed or injured as a result of the maneuver is not known as the federal government does not oblige the country's more than 18,000 police stations to keep track of things.
The death of George Floyd under the knee of a Minneapolis police officer on May 25 has resulted in renewed public scrutiny of violent police tactics, including shootings, stun guns and chokeholds. The PIT maneuver – also a potentially fatal use of force by the police – has not received the same amount of attention despite its risk and widespread adoption by departments across the country.
To investigate the tactic, the Post collected statistics of PIT deaths and injuries since 2016 from messages and records from the 100 largest city police departments and 49 state police departments. Answers were received from 142 of them. Most departments do not break out fatalities and injuries and were only able to provide guidelines on whether they used the maneuver. Many couldn't tell how often chases ended up in PITs.
One of the nine drivers killed that year was Justin Battenfield, 34, a man whose family claimed to be mentally retarded and to drive the streets around his home in Van Buren, Ark.
Shortly after sunrise on April 10, Battenfield failed to stop at a traffic light in a Dodge Ram and began to flee when a U.S. Forest Service officer tried to stop him. Arkansas State Trooper Michael Shawn Ellis took up the chase. Battenfield captured the dashboard camera video from the soldier's car as he turned into the path of oncoming traffic. "Stop this car as soon as there is an opening," a supervisor told Ellis over the radio.
Ellis hit Battenfield's truck at 109 mph, causing both vehicles to fall. Battenfield's truck landed on its roof and acted as a ramp for the soldier's car. He tossed it into the air where it cut through two street lamps.
Arkansas State Police performed a 109 mph PIT maneuver on April 10, 2020 to end a chase in Fort Smith, Ark. The chase began after Battenfield didn't stop at a traffic light. Battenfield died and the officer was injured.
Battenfield died and Trooper Ellis suffered "non-life-threatening injuries," according to state police.
"You should have retired and he would have come home," said Carol Henson, Battenfield's mother. "Then they could have come and fetched him."
An Arkansas State Patrol spokesman said the department regretted the loss of life, but stressed that PIT is often dependent on the unpredictable behavior of the fleeing driver.
"The pit … is supposed to be a controlled maneuver based on all the factors at that second. The law enforcement officer's bumper makes contact with the vehicle. That's everything. If the suspect changes dynamics in any way, it can be very easy." go bad, and no question, "said spokesman Bill Sadler, declining to leave Ellis available for comment.
At slower speeds – generally 35 to 45 mph – the maneuver can be safe and effective for ending chases, experts said.
The Los Angeles Police Department reports that it has been using PIT maneuvers since 2005 without death or serious injury.
The department does not allow the maneuver at over 35 mph. Officers are not allowed to chase or PIT vehicles that are fleeing minor traffic violations. And its use is restricted to employment with dangerous criminals or drunk drivers.
"It allows us to protect the surrounding community while arresting a perpetrator who has committed a serious crime," said Michel R. Moore, Los Angeles police chief. He described it as an important tool in certain circumstances.
"We recognize that at this speed, the dynamics and physics of engagement can result in a vehicle that poses a risk to the public, occupants and officials," said Moore.
How the police use a PIT maneuver to end a chase First the officer pulls next to the fleeing vehicle and adjusts his speed.
The officer uses the front side panel to contact the rear side panel of the fleeing vehicle and carefully steers it into it.
The target vehicle turns in the opposite direction of the officer. The police car keeps moving forward.
The target vehicle turns and stops. The police car continues to drive forward until the destination is reached.
At higher speeds, the maneuver put cars on the road, trees and, in one case, killed a woman in Tift County, Georgia, while standing in her front yard.
"When you start to get up to high speeds it gets very dangerous," said Rick Giovengo, who studied the use of the PIT as a senior research analyst at the federal law enforcement training centers in Glynco, Georgia, and trains tribal officers from across the country to use the PIT.
Despite the risk, there is little national research on its safety or benefit.
In 2006, the Georgia Association of Chiefs of Police conducted one of the few maneuver studies to examine police activity in the state. The report concluded that "the PIT maneuver is controlled and predictable" but "can cause serious injury or death under certain circumstances". These circumstances, according to the report, included a PIT for a driver who did not wear a seat belt, a PIT that kicked people out of the fleeing vehicle, or a PIT that got the fleeing car rolling.
The Police Executive Research Forum, a Washington-based think tank that advises police chiefs on policy issues, has investigated the fatal use of firearms and police operations, but not the use of PIT.
"We generally don't recommend it," said Chuck Wexler, group executive director. "You only want to put the officer or the person you are persecuting at risk if you have reason to believe that they are committing a violent crime."
Karen M. Blum, a law professor at Suffolk University Law School, was studying tactics for the National Police Accountability Project, which filed a brief on a Supreme Court case filed by a man who had a PIT attempt in 2001 Police paralyzed in Georgia was an officer.
"Above a certain speed, nothing is precise about a PIT maneuver," said Blum. "It's a ram that turns two heavy vehicles into lethal projectiles."
Deputy of a Picken & # 39; s County Sherrif & # 39; s Office performed a PIT maneuver in Jasper, Georgia on January 29, 2019. The MP tried to stop the driver because of a pending arrest warrant.
(Pickens County Sherrifs Office)
Spectators pay a price
In the past year, the Jacksonville Florida Sheriff's office conducted more than 200 police operations, ending 61 with PITs. This emerges from an annual report from the office.
Only one of them ended in death: Louis Warren Reese, an 84-year-old retired Navy veteran who had been kidnapped.
Just after 2 p.m. on January 2, 2019, a gunman robbed the Lucky Charms Arcade in Jacksonville and fled on foot into Reese's backyard. The police surrounded Reese's property. The suspected shooter, Lawrence Hall III, broke into Reese's house, pushed him into the back of his Dodge SUV parked in the garage, opened the door, and sped away.
When a police helicopter and patrol car followed the fleeing SUV, the police looked for Reese – without knowing that, according to police reports, he was in the back of the SUV.
During the chase, which reached speeds in excess of 100 mph, Hall came across an officer trying to place inflation sticks on the road. Another officer tried to PIT the SUV but failed and crashed. Finally, eight miles from its beginning, a K-9 officer PIT on the fleeing vehicle, according to police reports.
The PIT sent the SUV into a cement telephone pole and the car split in two. Power lines fell on the roof and the car began to burn. The police saved Hall – and then found that Reese was also in the car.
"The responding officers put out the fire and at that point discovered an elderly man. . . in the back seat of the vehicle, ”the officers wrote in a report. Reese, a deacon in his church, suffered a collapsed lung and multiple fractures, including a broken leg, broken arm, and broken spine, his family told a local TV station. He died in hospital a week later. His family did not respond to requests for comment.
Hall and two MPs were seriously injured. MPs were awarded Purple Heart Medals, and Hall was charged with attempted murder and kidnapping. The case is pending. The Jacksonville Sheriff's office declined to comment on the crash or use of the maneuver, citing an ongoing investigation into the crimes.
In the 1990s, few departments across the country adopted the tactic known by various names, including Tactical Vehicle Intervention, or TVI. In 1996, a Tampa Police Sergeant learned of its use by the Fairfax County, Va. Police in search of new tactics to safely end the chase.
"I can teach a chimpanzee how to do this," he later told the Tampa Bay Times. Other departments used the PIT, including the Georgia State Patrol.
Since 1997, the patrol has carried out more than 1,500 PIT maneuvers, according to court and authority records, and recorded the first death in 1998. At least 34 people have been killed since then, including seven since 2016.
"When used under policy and state law, we feel like we're doing a good job and that there are no reservations," said Lt. Stephanie Stallings, a Georgia State Patrol spokeswoman. "Certainly we would never want death to occur in a maneuver that we use, but unfortunately there are cases in which death does result."
An MP in Georgia used the PIT maneuver at 77 mph to stop a driver on October 17, 2017 in Lawrenceville, Georgia. The chase, which reached speeds in excess of 100 miles per hour, began after the car abruptly changed lanes. Two children were in the vehicle and the mother was accused of driving under the influence of the driver.
(Gwinnett County Sheriff & # 39; s Department)
Other departments across the state have adopted the PIT maneuver – in some cases, it has had disastrous results.
Last September, a Whitfield County, Georgia MP used a PIT to end a stolen car. The 21-year-old driver, Makayla Whitt, was ejected and thrown 50 feet and her left arm was severed under the elbow, according to police reports. Whitt could not be reached for comment.
In June 2018, a Monroe County, Georgia sheriff's deputy dressed 28-year-old Guadalupe Garcia for an alleged window tint violation. Garcia fled and the deputy did a PIT at nearly 76 mph, throwing his Toyota Camry into trees and knocking Garcia and his 19-year-old nephew out of the car. Garcia died and his nephew told the Post he had been in the hospital for at least two weeks.
The Monroe County Sheriff's Department did not respond to requests for comment.
Priscilla Villaneueva, Garcia's friend and mother of their three children, told the Post that he had problems with the police and was afraid of being deported. He had previously been arrested on drug charges. "I think they should have tried a different method to slow the car down," said Villaneueva. "The PIT was done at such a fast pace."
Outside of Atlanta, South Fulton police attempted to rob a Hyundai sonata that had been reported stolen on December 4, 2018.
The driver, 19-year-old Emmitt Daniels, sped away and almost hit an officer who had just got out of his police vehicle. Officers chased Daniels, chasing Daniels for about three miles, and reaching speeds of at least 65 miles per hour according to police reports.
A destroyed Hyundai Sonata sits on the side of the road in South Fulton, Georgia, after a crash on December 4, 2018. Police reports said the crash followed a police chase that reached a speed of 100 km / h or more and ended when an officer PIT and sent the Hyundai down a sidewalk killing a pedestrian. (Georgia Department of Public Safety)
As Daniels passed a cluster of townhouses, one of the officers performed a PIT maneuver in which his Dodge Charger hit the rear right corner of the Hyundai and turned it over a sidewalk. The car shattered a power pole, rolled up a steep bank, and stopped. Daniels sprinted into the townhouses and escaped the police.
When the police investigated, they found a shoe near the scene of the accident which they suspected Daniels had been lost while trying to escape. This comes from a local news report.
Five weeks later, a local landscaper found the body of 41-year-old Marcus McCrary, who had been hit and killed by the runaway Hyundai. McCrary's body, which was found hidden behind bushes, was missing her left lower leg, the Post's landscaper told the Post.
Police later found the lower portion of McCrary's leg in a Hyundai wheel arch on confiscated property.
McCrary's twin sister, Miracle Walker, said McCrary was on her way to her house, just a few blocks away, on the day of the crash. When he didn't show up, she tried to find him, but was out of luck.
She said she now knows exactly when her brother died: the lights in her house went out when Daniel's vehicle crashed over the power lines.
"Officials said the speed was up to 90 mph," Walker told the Post, saying it was both the police and Daniels to blame. "There isn't a specific time you can walk down this street and there are no pedestrians."
Daniels was arrested a few weeks later, according to court records, for the felony murder and the murder of a vehicle for the death of McCrary. The case is still ongoing. A Daniels attorney did not respond to a request for comment.
Keith Meadows, South Fulton Police Chief, also did not respond to requests for comment.
One driver survived after being ejected from a vehicle after a PIT maneuver by MPs in Florence, S.C. on July 12, 2018. The MPs tried to stop the woman's vehicle because of a traffic violation.
(Florence County Sheriff's Office)
"We don't want to take the risk"
The departments shared the risks of using the PIT. Of the 142 law enforcement agencies that responded to The Post, 74 said they did not use the maneuver. You wouldn't say.
"We're not using the PIT maneuver and the reason is security," said Paul Linders, a spokesman for the St. Paul Police Department in Minnesota. “If our officers were to park a vehicle in a residential area, the vehicle could end up in a yard, playground, or shop. We don't want to take the chance to hurt an innocent bystander to end a persecution in this way. "
The New York State Police are not using the tactic "because of the potential danger it poses to the target vehicle occupants, the pursuing soldiers and the drivers," said Beau Duffy, a department spokesman.
Fairfax County Police, one of the first departments to accept the maneuver, said they had trained many authorities across the country to use it.
"We can do a PIT with minimal or no damage other than paint transfer between two vehicles and have the car stop where we want it to," said Jay Jackson, who is responsible for the Chantilly center and track, Va., Where the Fairfax Police are doing pursuit training.
The officers are gradually learning how to adjust the speed of a fleeing vehicle and make contact with the moving vehicle, Jackson said. Officers cannot use the tactic on the streets until they have completed eight successful PITs on the route. You have to recertify yourself every three years.
Jackson said the fleeing cars will spin 180 degrees onto the nearest lane at 45 mph and below. Above that speed, events are less predictable, he said.
MPs in Cumming, Ga., tried repeatedly to end a high-speed chase on April 4, 2018 with the PIT maneuver. After the accident, a group of young people fled the vehicle. Three were later arrested and charged with two break-ins.
(Forsyth County Sheriff's Office)
Thirty of the 67 agencies using the PIT maneuver allow their officers to do so at any speed. According to Swiss Post surveys, 26 of the agencies have a speed limit. Eleven agencies did not provide any information about whether they have speed restrictions.
The Indiana State Police, for example, prohibit use above 50 mph. The state police in Iowa and California limit PIT to speeds of 35 mph and below.
Many agencies suggest that officials get approval from a supervisor before conducting a PIT. The Utah Highway Patrol has a one-paragraph policy that requires officials using the PIT "to act within the limits of legality, good judgment and accepted practice."
Georgia State Patrol's prosecution policy requires the officer to consider the condition of the road, visibility, pedestrian and vehicular traffic, the type of vehicle, and whether there are any passengers in the fleeing vehicle. The patrol prohibits PITs on motorcycles or ATVs. However, there is no speed limit as the officers have to decide what is “reasonable”.
The Nebraska State Patrol warns against the use of PITs on pickups with passengers in the hold or larger vehicles, but has no speed limits.
Some agencies only allow officials to PIT over certain speeds if they believe the use of lethal force is warranted.
"Some places and legal experts will say that a PIT above 50 mph is the use of lethal force and others say 45. It's a bit arbitrary," said Geoffrey Alpert, professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of South Carolina, and Co. -Author of "Police Evaluation of Use of Force".
In Albuquerque, police allow officers to pIT vehicles at over 35 mph if they believe fatal violence is warranted. This was the case when police used the maneuver on a Gulf Stream Touring RV.
Shortly after 7 p.m. on June 20, 2017, police tried to arrest David Barber in a RV park for illegally possessing guns and charging batteries. Barber escaped in a stolen 26-foot RV, ripped the sewer hose and power cords from their connections, and drove through a metal gate.
At first, the police decided not to chase Barber because a police plane was monitoring the RV from above, Sgt. Albert Sandoval later said in a deposit. But when Barber almost hit an officer, Sandoval ordered the police to go into pursuit. For about 45 minutes and at a speed of up to 100 km / h, the police chased the mobile home, which hit at least five vehicles.
After the motor home drove through a busy intersection, an officer stopped by and touched the front right side of his Ford Expedition with the rear driver's side of the motor home. He turned his steering wheel to the right.
"The motorhome has not performed as he expected," a later police investigation said. Instead, "the size and weight of the RV and RV forced him over the median and into the south-facing lanes."
The officer's expedition collided with three other cars, but Barber drove on and drove the RV over the mean and back into the lanes heading north. Another officer performed a second PIT on the motor home at approximately 100 km / h, records show.
This time, the PIT maneuver forced the RV to skip the mean mean and hit an oncoming Chevy Malibu. The Malibu was driven by Tito Pacheco, a single father of three teenagers.
Pacheco died of his injuries three weeks later. According to a city spokesman, his children and brother sued the Albuquerque police and settled for $ 500,000. Pacheco's family did not respond to a request for comment.
Barber was arrested and charged with multiple crimes, including first degree murder for Pacheco's death. The case is still ongoing.
"If we did nothing to stop him at this point, the chances that he would kill someone were very high," Sandoval said in a statement for the lawsuit, describing his order to stop the motorhome.
“I gave this instruction once. . . I knew these officers would use their vehicles to hit that vehicle, which could cause death or serious injury to the driver, ”he said.
Gilbert Gallegos, an Albuquerque police spokesman, said there have been many policy changes in the department since the crash.
"I am not aware of any other serious incident involving PIT maneuvers," said Gallegos. "We also have additional driver training courses for officers involved in accidents, and we recently received a new driving simulator to help with training."
An aerial view of the minivan that crashed after a high-speed chase with a North Carolina Highway Patrol soldier in 2017. The soldier performed a PIT maneuver in which the driver lost control of the vehicle and killed two passengers. (North Carolina State Highway Patrol Collision Reconstruction Unit)
"I saw at least one other inmate"
In the weeks before the North Carolina Highway Patrol soldier Motsinger used a PIT to stop the minivan full of teenagers, he'd finished two more chases on the tactic. In one case, he sent a driver into a ditch at 65 mph and caused $ 3,300 damage to his patrol car. He was driving a rental vehicle the night he rammed the van, records show.
The teenagers were out that evening because Maria Carbajal and her mother argued over Maria's boyfriend, who lived with her family. Angry, Maria packed some clothes, took her mother's van and left the house with her brother Osiel, her boyfriend and another friend.
Teresa Chaparro, Maria and Osiel's mother, was waiting to call the police. She was afraid they would arrest the children. But after two days, Chaparro went to the Wadesboro Police Station and spoke to an officer who alerted them that the teenagers were missing.
The next night, Osiel, who did not have a driver's license, was driving 100 km / h in a 45 km / h zone on Highway 74 when Motsinger saw the van speed by and chased it.
Osiel stopped first but told The Post that one of the teenagers in the car warned that if they got into trouble they would be arrested. Everyone told him to go, he said. Osiel sped away. They were only a few miles from his house.
"I had the feeling that if I could get where my mother was, she could help me," said Osiel.
Motsinger asked a dispatcher to contact the police in advance and ask if they had "stop sticks", sticks that could be dropped on the pavement to deactivate the van's tires. No, she replied over the audio of the radio call.
He asked if he should turn the van on. A supervisor asked if there were other people in the vehicle.
At the time, North Carolina had no speed limit on PIT maneuvers used by officers like Motsinger who had undergone more extensive training. However, the guideline forbade soldiers from using the maneuver if the fleeing vehicle was believed to be carrying "children or other innocent passengers".
"I saw at least one other inmate," Motsinger said over the radio. "I don't know how many." Motsinger added that traffic was weak and the area was free.
"You think he's 55?" asked the guard, using the police radio code for a drunk driver.
Motsinger said he did. The supervisor gave him permission to PIT.
Seventeen miles into the chase, Motsinger was approaching and his front left quarter hit the rear right side of the car. Osiel lost control and the minivan turned around until it came to rest in the woods.
Maria Carbajal starb, nachdem ein Soldat aus North Carolina eine PIT an dem Van durchgeführt hatte, in dem sie fuhr. (Familienfoto)
Der Rücksitz des Lieferwagens, auf dem Maria Carbajal und ihr Freund Jonathan Thomas saßen, löste sich und warf sie aus dem Fahrzeug. Die Polizei teilte Chaparro mit, dass Maria an Thomas gestorben war, der einen gebrochenen Wirbel hatte.
Ein Freund, Kandy Castrejon, der auf dem Beifahrersitz gesessen hatte, wurde ebenfalls ausgeworfen. Castrejon, die gerne Videos von sich selbst machte, starb einige Tage später.
In einem Bericht der Collision Reconstruction Unit der North Carolina Highway Patrol heißt es, dass das "Manöver bei diesem Absturz korrekt ausgeführt wurde".
Ein Sprecher der North Carolina Highway Patrol bezeichnete die Todesfälle als "tragisch", lehnte es jedoch ab, sich weiter zu dem Fall zu äußern. Motsinger konnte nicht für einen Kommentar erreicht werden und die Abteilung lehnte es ab, ihn zur Verfügung zu stellen.
Chaparro erzählte The Post, dass sie in der Nacht des Absturzes in der Kirche gebetet und sich erkältet hatte und wusste, dass Maria in Schwierigkeiten war. Als sie nach Hause kam, sagte ihre jüngste Tochter, dass die Teenager am Haus vorbeigekommen waren, aber Angst hatten, dass sie in Schwierigkeiten waren und wieder gingen. Sie machte sich nach Mitternacht fürs Bett fertig, als der Anruf wegen des Absturzes kam.
Als sie im Krankenhaus ankam, sah sie Ärzteteams, die sich um ein dünnes Mädchen drängten, und erkannte Kandy Castrejons Mutter in der Nähe. Im Nebenzimmer sah sie Thomas, Marias Freund. Sie ging in den letzten Raum und sah ihren Sohn Osiel auf einem Tisch sitzen.
Osiel fragte nach seiner Schwester. Aber sie war schon tot.
Der Schaden an dem Minivan voller Teenager, nachdem ein Soldat aus North Carolina ein PIT-Manöver durchgeführt hatte. (North Carolina State Highway Patrol Kollisionsrekonstruktionseinheit)
Nach dem Absturz überprüfte das North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation die Verwendung der PIT durch Motsinger und übergab die Ergebnisse an die Generalstaatsanwaltschaft, die Motsinger von jeglichem Fehlverhalten befreite.
"Es scheint, dass alle praktikablen Mittel zum Anhalten des Fahrzeugs erschöpft waren und die Wahrscheinlichkeit schwerer Verletzungen oder Todesfälle für die Öffentlichkeit ein Hauptanliegen blieb, bevor Trooper Motsinger beschloss, die PIT als Mittel zur Deaktivierung des Fahrzeugs einzusetzen", so der Generalstaatsanwalt Büro schrieb in einem Brief vom Februar 2018 über seine Entscheidung.
"Trooper Motsinger war gezwungen, in Sekundenbruchteilen ein Urteil über die Menge an Kraft zu fällen, die in einer Situation erforderlich war, die sehr angespannt, unsicher und sich schnell entwickelnd war."
Die Familien von Maria und Kandy verklagten den Staat mit der Behauptung, Motsinger habe exzessive Gewalt angewendet, sei rücksichtslos gewesen und habe gegen die Richtlinien der Abteilung verstoßen. Motsinger, so behaupteten sie, hätte wissen müssen, dass vier Teenager im Van waren. Der Fall wurde im Mai für einen nicht genannten Betrag beigelegt, wie Aufzeichnungen belegen.
Thomas sagte, dass er nach dem Absturz eindringliche Blitze seiner Freunde im Van herumfliegen ließ.
Er sagte, er sei mit Bedauern überwältigt, nicht mehr getan zu haben, um Osiel davon abzuhalten, wegzurasen, als sie gestoppt wurden. Osiel wurde wegen Ausweichens der Polizei eines Verbrechens angeklagt und später nach Angaben von Anwälten, die die Familie vertreten, einer jugendlichen Anklage schuldig bekannt. Osiel sei nicht berauscht, sagten die Anwälte.
"Es macht für mich keinen Sinn, dass die Polizei das getan hat", sagte Thomas. „Warum sollten Sie ein Auto über 100 Meilen pro Stunde PIT manövrieren? Was haben Sie dabei erreicht? Sie haben zwei unschuldige Menschen getötet, die ihr ganzes Leben vor sich hatten, weil jemand anderes beschlossen hat, zu beschleunigen. "
Infolge des Absturzes hat die North Carolina Highway Patrol im Juli 2017 ihre Richtlinien zur Verwendung von PIT überarbeitet: Soldaten dürfen Fahrzeuge mit einer Geschwindigkeit von mehr als 90 km / h nicht PIT-fahren, es sei denn, der flüchtende Fahrer hat ein Verbrechen begangen oder tödliche Gewalt angewendet Es ist garantiert.
Chaparro sagte, sie bedauere es, die Polizei gerufen zu haben.
"Sie mussten mein Kind nicht töten", sagte sie. "Für was?" sie fragte durch einen Übersetzer. "Ich hatte an diesem Samstag, als wir zur Arbeit gingen, nicht bemerkt, dass es das letzte Mal sein würde, dass ich mit meiner Tochter sprechen würde."
Julie Tate, Steven Rich, Ana Chacin und Justine Coleman haben zu diesem Bericht beigetragen, der in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Investigative Reporting Workshop veröffentlicht wurde, bei dem Chacin und Coleman Stipendiaten waren.
Shaun Raviv ist freiberuflicher Journalist und lebt in Atlanta. Er hat Features für Wired, Smithsonian, BuzzFeed, The Ringer, Deadspin, Columbia Journalism Review und The Washington Post geschrieben.
John Sullivan ist Reporter im Untersuchungsteam der Washington Post, investigativer Reporter in Residence an der American University und leitender Redakteur beim Investigative Reporting Workshop. His work has earned numerous awards, including the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, which he shared with colleagues at the Philadelphia Inquirer.